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Why Dar should be cautious of the Coalition of Willing (CoW) members

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Last week the so called Coalition of the Willing (CoW) surreptitiously forged by Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda, was swept under the carpet and the three members accepted, grudgingly, Tanzania and Burundi into their fold.

The CoW members had no option, given the mastery delivery, a week earlier, of President Jakaya Kikwete’s speech on the issue.

Dr Kikwete’s speech, which was not only air-tight, but also legally and diplomatically laced, was the best he has ever delivered since he became the President of the United Republic of Tanzania eight years ago!

However, much as the CoW members appear, on the surface, to have buried their bustard baby, but Tanzania should treat the three members with utmost caution!

For there are all signs that the three countries are still scheming, particularly against Tanzania, and the latter does not seem to have learnt anything from the breakup of the original EAC!

And talking about the ‘signs’ one has simply got to listen very careful to Presient Uhuru Kenyatta’s speech when he was inaugurating the construction of the standard railroad from Mombasa to Uganda to pick up those hidden hints!

The Kenyan president was very sarcastic about claims made by Tanzania and Burundi that they were being isolated.

After being forced to establish a new airline (Air Tanzania Corporation which we are still building!), at a staggering cost, and other services which had hitherto been handled jointly, Tanzania still believes that countries like Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda are serious in the EAC project!

The fact of the matter is that the three countries are not, and whatever they do about the EAC is always aimed at fulfilling their own hidden agendas!

For instance, for Rwanda, it is about survival, and they have every right to do that and one cannot blame them!

After overcoming the trauma of the 1994 genocide, the Rwandan government has always been forced to look over its shoulders for the former General Juvenal Habyarimana’s troops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC.

It is therefore the hope of the Rwandan government that through the federation, they would be able to solve the threat posed by the former Rwandan army and interahamwe.

For Uganda, their involvement in the EAC project is more or less similar to that held by the Rwandan government.

President, Yoweri Museveni, would very much like to be the first president of the EAC federation.

The realization of such a dream would help the Ugandan president in getting away from the ‘heat’ he is presently facing in Uganda!

It’s not sexy when a whole director general of intelligence and security just releases some nasty information on your succession plans and finally disappears into oblivion!

Museveni knows once he becomes the EAC Federation president, his enemies in Uganda would not be able to pull the carpet under the feet of whomever he has installed in Kampala as they would be severely and jointly dealt with by the combined defence forces of the region.

As for the Kenyans, their reason for being part of the EAC project is somehow different. They want a bigger market and of course, the land which they could use in off-loading part of their countrymen!

By the way, do you remember how the land question almost threatened Uhuru’s campaign during the March general election?

All the three countries’ personal wishes, as narrated above, can only be realized if Tanzania, whose country’s size can accommodate all the four-kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, agrees to play the ball!

For now, Tanzania has not. Its reluctance to play the ball has been brought about after its populace said they were against fast-tracking of the EAC Federation.

And the reluctance was put in better perspective by President Kikwete in his classic speech, when he said: “We have experience in our own Union (the first and only surviving one in Africa) with Zanzibar.”

Last week, Uganda’s leading English daily, The VISION was very visionary when it wrote that one of the main reasons behind the formation of the CoW was Kenya’s fears that Tanzania would soon overtake her as the biggest economy in the region through its decision to construct the the Bagamoyo port which would be the biggest in Africa.

The paper noted that it was because of such fears that Kenya had managed to influence the two other countries to embark on the construction of a  massive infrastructure in the form of standard railroads that would wean Uganda, Rwanda from the Tanzanian ports, and in particular, the planned construction of the Bagamoyo port.

What the VISION did not however, say is what had motivated both Uganda and Rwanda into joining Kenya.

The truth is that much as the Rwandan government has always disassociated itself from the M23, the fact is that their (M23) presence in eastern DRC (before they were destroyed by UN intervention force) had always helped the Rwandan regime in keeping in check the former Rwandan army and interahamwe forces.

However, after the arrival of the Tanzanian troops under the umbrella of the United Nations intervention force along with troops from South Africa and Malawi, and under the command of a Tanzanian General, Kigali sulked!

And as if that was not bad enough, the worst later happened, the destruction by the UN intervention force of the M23, hence the disappearance, into thin air of Rwanda government’s dreams!

Therefore President Museveni’s impatience in becoming the new chief executive officer of the EAC Federation helped him in becoming a willing player in the ‘defunct’ CoW with the other two presidents from Kenya and Rwanda!

The Tanzania government should now look critically at what I have just narrated, and it will discover that the three issues are still relevant and cannot therefore be swept under the carpet as long as Tanzania does not play the ball!

What should Tanzania do? Should they rush into the EAC? No, they should not! Doing that would be suicidal!

 In fact, Tanzania does not need to waste its time in this animal called the EAC which is presently being pushed, left, right and centre, by our so called Development Partners whose intention is nothing but to get a bigger market!

It is important for Tanzania to bear in mind that ‘those pushing’ EAC countries into the Federation actually want to later use others into bringing pressure to bear on what they consider to be their would-be biggest prize, the United Republic of Tanzania, which does not only have arable land galore, but also all kinds of minerals, including gas and oil.

Therefore the best way of dealing with the CoW, is for Tanzania to do exactly what Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda did as the CoW lasted, and do it very fast, get into construction of standard railroads that would support Bagamoyo port as soon as it’s construction is completed!

Tanzania should approach the same country, China, which provided them with the loan for the construction of the Bagamoyo port to get another massive credit for construction of a network of standard rail in the country that would link Bagamoyo port with countries like Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, Burundi and the DRC.

Without linking the new Bagamoyo port with a robust network of railroads, the port could easily be reduced into a massive store for storing imports rather than a gateway of both imports and exports to the rest of the world!

Tanzania’s efficiency in running both the rail network and Bagamoyo port would eventually force countries like Uganda and Rwanda to turn to Bagamoyo port!

The beauty of Tanzania embarking on such project is that it will keep the country in a very strong economic position regardless of whether or not Tanzania is in the EAC!

At the end of the day, Tanzania would not find itself in the same quagmire it found itself in when the original EAC collapsed in June, 1977!

For after the collapse of the original EAC, Tanzania found itself sagging with a massive burden of having to establish new infrastructure after losing those it had jointly participated in, in their construction and which were located in Kenya.

For instance, it had to urgently look for fund for re-establishment of its communication link after losing Longonot in Kenya by building the Mwenge Satellite!

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Sayansi na Teknolojia

Mitandao ya Kijamii inavyowanyima usingizi viongozi Afrika Mashariki

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Licha matumizi ya intaneti kuongezeka katika ukanda wa Afrika Mashariki, watumiaji wa mitandao ya kijamii hawatafaidika na huduma hiyo kutokana vikwazo vya kisheria vilivyowekwa na serikali za nchi zao.

Ripoti ya Mamlaka ya Mawasiliano Tanzania (TCRA) ya mpaka Desemba 2017 imeonesha kuwa idadi ya watumiaji wa intaneti imeongezeka kufikia watu milioni 23 ambayo ni sawa na asilimia 45 ya Watanzania wote. Kwa upande wa Uganda matumizi hayo yamefikia asilimia 22.

Hivi karibuni marais wa nchi za Uganda, Yoweri Museveni na Tanzania, John Magufuli wamenukuliwa wakitoa kauli ambazo zinaashiria kuminya uhuru wa kujieleza na kutoa maoni unaofanywa na watumiaji wa majukwaa na mitandao ya kijamii.

Kwa nyakati tofauti marais hao wawili ambao ni sehemu ya Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki wamekuwa wakidai kuwa uhuru wa watu umevuka mipaka na kuna haja ya kudhibiti matumizi ya mitandao ya kijamii ili kuhakikisha usalama wa mataifa yao.

Lakini wachambuzi wa masuala ya kisiasa wanasema udhibiti huo wa mitandao ni kuwanyamazisha wananchi ambao wamekuwa na muamko wa kuhoji, kukosoa mwenendo wa viongozi wa serikali ambao wanapaswa kuwajibika kwa wapiga kura kwa kutoa huduma bora za kijamii.

Rais Yoweri Museveni (kushoto)  akiwa na rais John Magufuli (kulia) katika moja ya shughuli za kiserikali jijini Arusha

 

Nini kinaendelea Uganda…

Serikali ya Uganda imesema kuanzia Julai mwaka huu itawatoza kodi ya sh. 200 za Uganda wateja wa kampuni za simu wanaotumia mitandao ya kijamii ya WhatsApp, Viber, Twitter na Skype ili kukabiliana na ‘umbea’ unaoendelea katika mitandao hiyo.

Hatua hiyo imekuja baada ya rais Yoweri Mseveni kuiandikia barua ofisi ya Hazina, Machi, 2018 akielezea jinsi mijadala isiyo na tija kama ‘umbea’ inavyolikosesha taifa lake mapato na muda wa uzalishaji mali.

Ikiwa ni sehemu ya kodi mpya, makampuni ya simu yanayotoa huduma ya vifurushi vya intaneti yatawajibika kuwa na takwimu za wateja wao  wanaotumia intaneti ili kuhakikisha kila mtumiaji analipa  kodi ya ongezeko la thamani.

Waziri wa Fedha wa nchi hiyo, Matia Kasaija tayari ameanza mchakato wa kuifanyia marekebisho Sheria ya Kodi ya mwaka 2014 na mswada umepelekwa bungeni kwa mapitio baada ya kupitishwa na Baraza la Mawaziri.

Akihojiwa na wanahabari, Waziri Kasaija alisema kodi itakayotozwa kwa watumiaji wa mitandao ya kijamii itasaidia kuimarisha usalama wa taifa na kuongeza uzalishaji wa umeme. “Kodi hii itasaidia kuimarisha usalama wa nchi na kuongeza umeme ambao nyinyi watu mtatumia kufurahia zaidi mitandao ya kijamii.”

Kawaida, watumiaji wa mitandao ya kijamii hununua vifurushi vya intaneti kupitia simu lakini bado haijafahamika wazi jinsi serikali itakavyokata kodi hiyo kwa watumiaji hao au namna watakavyoweza kujua watu walioingia kwenye mitandao kama Facebook na Twitter. Kimsingi kila mtu mwenye simu ya mkononi inayotumia intaneti atatozwa kodi.

Mabadiliko hayo yamewashangaza watu wengi hasa watumiaji wa teknolojia ya mawasiliano ikizingatiwa kuwa  upatikanaji wa intaneti nchini humo ni wa asilimia 22 na ziko juhudi mbalimbali za kukuza teknolojia ya mawasiliano.

Wengine wakihitimisha kuwa ni mkakati wa kuwanyamazisha wakosoaji wa rais Museveni ambaye anakusudia kufanya mabadiliko ya sheria ili kumruhusu kugombea tena nafasi ya urais baada ya muda wake wa kukaa madarakani kumalizika.

Siyo mara ya kwanza kwa viongozi wa Uganda kuweka mikakati ya kisheria inayokusudia kudhibiti uhuru wa kujieleza. Februari, 2016 wakati wa uchaguzi mkuus, serikali ilizima mitandao ya Facebook na Twitter sambamba kuzuia huduma za kifedha kwa njia ya mtandao. Baada ya uchaguzi mitandao iliendelea kufanya kazi kama kawaida.

Miezi michache baadaye serikali ilinunu mtambo kubaini maudhui ya picha za ngono (pornography detecting machine) yenye thamani ya Dola za Marekani 88,000 kwa lengo la kulinda maadili na tunu za taifa.

June mwaka jana, Kituo cha Habari cha Uganda kilitangaza kuwa kimeanzisha kitengo maalum cha kupitia wasifu wa watumiaji wa mitandao ya kijamii ili kubaini mabandiko yenye maudhui ya ukosoaji. Mwezi uliofuata wa Julai, gazeti la Daily Monitor liliripoti kuwa serikali imeomba usaidizi kutoka China katika utekelezaji wa mpango kazi wa usalama mtandaoni ambao unalenga kusimamia na kuzuia matumizi mabaya ya mitandao ya kijamii.

 

Tanzania nayo haiko nyuma

Hatua inazochukua Uganda hazitofautiani sana na za Tanzania. Tumesikia matamko na kauli mbalimbali za viongozi wa serikali wakilalamikia uhuru wa uliovuka mipaka wa mitandao ya kijamii.

Aprili 21, mwaka huu, rais John Magufuli alijitokeza kwenye runinga wakati akiwaapisha Majaji 10 wa mahakama, ambapo alisema uhuru wa watumiaji wa mitandao kijamii umevuka mipaka na watu wanatumia uhuru huo kupotosha baadhi ya mambo yanayofanywa na serikali yake.

“Kuna ugonjwa tumeupata Tanzania wa kufikiri kila kinachoandikwa kwenye mitandao ni cha ukweli. Sasa sifahamu huu ugonjwa umetoka wapi? Lakini ni kwasababu hii mitandao hatuicontrol (hatuisimamii) sisi, wako huko wenye mitandao yao, wao interest (maslahi) yao ni kutengeneza biashara hawajali madhara mtakayoyapata.” Alinukuliwa rais Magufuli.

Kauli ya rais imekuja wakati kukiwa na mjadala mpana wa Ripoti ya Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu za serikali ya mwaka 2017 ambayo inaonyesha kuwa trilioni 1.5 hazijulikani zimetumikaje.

Licha ya rais kukerwa na uhuru wa kujieleza na kutoa maoni ambao unatambulika na katiba ya nchi na mikataba ya kimataifa, Tanzania ilipitisha Sheria ya Maudhui ya Mtandaoni ya Mwaka 2015 ambayo imewatia hatiani baadhi ya watu kwa makosa mbalimbali ikiwemo ‘uchochezi’.

Ili kuipa nguvu sheria hiyo, mapema mwaka huu serikali imepitisha Kanuni Mpya za Maudhui ya Mtandaoni za mwaka 2018 ambapo katika kifungu cha 4 kinawataka wamiliki wa blogu, tovuti, majukwaa, radio na runinga za mtandaoni kujisajili ili wapate leseni za kuendesha shughuli zao.

Waliopewa mamlaka ya kusimamia maudhui ya mtandaoni ambao ni Mamlaka ya Mawasiliano Tanzania (TCRA) watakuwa na uwezo wa kuwalazimisha wamiliki wa blogu au tovuti kuondoa maudhui yanayodhaniwa kuwa hayafai ndani ya saa 12 na kama hawajatimiza maagizo hayo wanaweza kulipa fidia isiyopungua milioni tano  au kifungo kisichopungua mwaka mmoja jela.

Akizungumza Septemba 28, 2016 wakati wa uzinduzi wa ndege mbili aina ya Bombadier Q400 katika uwanja wa ndege wa kimataifa wa Julius Nyerere, rais Magufuli alinukuliwa akisema, “Natamani siku moja malaika washuke waizime hii mitandao yote ili baada ya mwaka mzima itakapokuja kufukunga wakute sisi tumeisha tengeneza Tanzania yetu mpya.”

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Jukwaa la Maisha

GREENLAND: Ulevi, ukosefu wa usingizi unavyochochea watu kujiua

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Matukio ya watu kujiua yameendelea kushamiri katika maeneo mbalimbali nchini. Watu ambao wanaondoa uhai wao kwa kunywa sumu, kujinyonga au kujirusha kwenye majengo marefu, sio mambo mageni tena. Zipo sababu mbalimbali ambazo zinawasukuma watu kujiua ikiwemo mabadiliko ya mfumo wa maisha.

Lakini umewahi kujiuliza ni nchi gani inayoongoza kwa watu kujiua? Greenland inatajwa kuwa nchi ya kwanza yenye viwango vikubwa vya watu wanaojiua duniani.

Kimsingi Greenland sio nchi. Bado inachukuliwa kama sehemu ya Ufalme wa Denmark. Hata hivyo, katika siku za karibuni, Greenland imetambuliwa kama ‘nchi huru’, ikiwa na maana kuwa inafanya kazi kama Taifa huru katika maeneo mengi lakini sio katika mambo yote.

Greenland haitambuliki kama nchi rasmi, na huwezi kuiona kwenye orodha ya nchi zenye viwango vikubwa vya kujiua, lakini kiuhalisia inaongoza duniani kwa matukio hayo. Kwenye orodha hiyo, Guyana inatajwa kuwa katika nafasi ya kwanza, kwa wastani watu 44.2 kati ya 100,000. Ikiwa ina maana kuwa kati ya watu 100,000 wa nchi hiyo 44 hujiua kila mwaka.

Hata hivyo, nchini Greenland hali ni mbaya zaidi. Kulingana na ripoti za kuanzia mwaka 1985 hadi 2012, wastani wa  viwango vya kujiua katika nchi hiyo ulikuwa watu 83 kati ya 100,000, ambapo ni karibu mara mbili zaidi ya Guyana.

                                      Polisi wakibeba mwili wa mtu aliyejiua

Greenland imeziacha kwa mbali nchi zote duniani katika matukio makubwa ya watu wake kujiua, na matukio haya hayapungui badala yake yanaongezeka kila mwaka. Kwa kawaida, lazima kuna tatizo ambalo linasababisha hali hiyo kutokea.

Kwa haraka haraka utakuwa na maswali mengi ya kutaka kufahamu kwanini wakazi wa Greenland wanashawishika kuondoa uhai wa maisha yao kwa kiasi hicho. Watu wengi katika nchi hiyo wana kipato kizuri na uhakika wa kupata pensheni nzuri kabla na baada ya kustaafu.

Lakini bado asilimia 20 ya wakazi wa Greenland wamewahi kuthubutu kujiua angalau mara moja katika maisha yao. Hiyo ina maana kuwa watu 2 kati ya 10 wana uwezekano mkubwa wa kujiua.

Swali la kujiuliza ni kwamba nani alaumiwe kwa matukio ya kujiua nchini Greenland? Jibu ni wananchi wenyewe wa Greenland kutokana na sababu zifuatazo:

 Ulevi

Kwa tafsiri nyepesi neno ‘Greenland’ ni ardhi yenye uoto wa kijani. Lakini Greenland tunayoizungumzia hapa haina sifa hizo. Hali ya hewa ya nchi hiyo ni ya baridi nyingi. Sehemu kubwa imefunikwa na barafu na kuzuia mimea kuota.

Kulingana na historia ya nchi hiyo, alikuwepo mtu mmoja maarufu ajulikanaye kama Viking Erik ambaye alilipa jina eneo hilo ‘Greenland’ (ardhi ya kijani). Alifanya hivyo ili kumshawishi mwenzake kuungana naye ili waanzishe makazi katika nchi hiyo.

Ili kufanikisha hazima yake, alichagua jina la ‘Green’land, japokuwa kulikuwa hakuna kitu kama hicho katika nchi hiyo.

Wakati wa majira ya joto, wastani wa jotoridi katika nchi hiyo huwa kati ya juzi joto 0 hadi 10 (10C). Wakati wa majira ya baridi (winter), jotoridi hushuka hadi juzi joto sifuri (0C). Nachelea kusema, Greenland ni kama kisiwa kilichofunikwa kwa barafu.

                       Barafu imefunika sehemu kubwa ya nchi ya Greenland

Ukweli ni kwamba, watu wanaoishi kwenye miji yenye baridi wanaowezekano mkubwa wa kuathirika na ulevi.  Watafiti wanaeleza kuwa kuna uhusiano wa moja kwa moja kati ya idadi ya watu wanaojiua na matumizi ya pombe.

Matumizi ya pombe ni tatizo kubwa la kijamii nchini Greenland. Pombe inasimama kama chanzo kikubwa cha ugomvi wa kifamilia, udhalilishaji wa kingono, ukosefu wa ajira, jambo linalochangia janga kubwa la kujiua katika nchi hiyo.

Ukosefu wa usingizi

Sehemu kubwa ya Greenland iko kwenye eneo la juu kabisa la nchi za Kaskazini, ambazo zinapata kipindi kimoja cha baridi. Pia inapata kipindi kimoja cha joto ambapo jua halipotei (sunset).

Katika eneo hilo la juu kabisa la Kaskazini mwa dunia, nchi zake nyingine zinatawaliwa na vipindi vingi vya baridi na giza hata wakati wa mchana na wakati wa majira ya joto, jua haliondoki angani.

Katika eneo hilo, kuna siku 120 katika mwaka ambapo jua halitui (sun never set), siku 108 katika mwaka jua halichomozi, na siku 137 tu ndiyo hupata mwanga na giza.

Unaweza kufikiri kwamba watu wanaweza kujiua kwasababu hakuna ishara ya jua wakati wa mchana hasa majira ya baridi, lakini la kushangaza ni kwamba tafiti zinaeleza kuwa matukio mengi ya kujiua yanatokea wakati wa majira ya joto.

Wataalamu wanasema wakati wa joto, watu hawapati usingizi wa uhakika jambo linalowaletea msongo wa mawazo na mkazo. Zaidi ya hapo, ukosefu kabisa wa giza unaweza kuathiri mwili wa binadamu na kutengeneza homoni ya ‘serotonin’ ambayo ni mahususi kusawazisha hali na hisia.

Swali la kujiuliza ni rahisi kwa kiasi gani akili zetu zinaweza zikabadilisha mfumo wa kupata usingizi kulingana na hali ya hewa? Hata hivyo sababu zote mbili – ulevi na ukosefu wa usingizi hazichukuliwi kama sababu zenye nguvu.

Kujiua halikuwa tatizo la siku zote nchini Greenland. Matukio ya kujiua yalikuwa machache katika miaka ya 1950. Baada ya kuingia miaka ya 1960, idadi ya matukio ya kujiua iliongezeka maradufu. Sababu za asili kama hali ya hewa zisingeweza kusababisha ongezeko hilo. Lakini zipo sababu zingine…

Uhamiaji na utengano

Greenland haina wakazi wengi ukilinganisha na nchi nyingine duniani. Japokuwa ni miongoni mwa visiwa vikubwa duniani ina wakazi wapatao 56,400 na 16,000 kati ya hao wanaishi katika mji mkuu wa Nuuk. Wakazi wengine wanaishi pembezoni mwa jiji hilo na wengine kwenye vijiji vya mbali ambapo vijiji vingine vina wakazi wasiozidi 50.

                            Makazi ya watu wa mji wa Nuuk, Greenland

Mnamo 1960, Greenland iliamua kutoendelea kuvisaidia vijiji vya mbali. Vijiji hivyo vilikuwa mbali na makao makuu ya Serikali na ikawa vigumu kwa wakazi wake kupata huduma muhimu za kijamii. Watu waliokuwa tayari kuondoka kwenye vijiji hivyo walipelekwa mjini ili kupata makazi na huduma za kijamii.

Lakini watu wengine walikataa kuondoka na kuamua kubaki katika vijiji hivyo. Walitaka kuendelea kulinda utambulisho na nyumba za waasisi wa kabila la Inuit. Kwa bahati mbaya, hawakuwa na chaguo tena zaidi ya kuondoka na kuungana na wenzao waliopo mjini.

Wakazi wa mjini hasa mji mkuu wa Nuuk wanawaona watu hao wanaohamia katika miji yao kama wakimbizi na wakati mwingine wanawatenga katika shughuli muhimu za kiuchumi na  kijamii. Kutokana na kadhia hiyo, wale wanatajwa kuwa ni wakimbizi hujiua kwasababu ya kutengwa na kunyimwa haki za msingi za kuishi.

Hata hivyo, Serikali ya Greenland imechukua hatua mbalimbali kupambana na janga hilo kwa kutengeneza miundombinu ya simu za mkononi kuongeza mawasiliano na kutoa ushauri kwa watu wenye hatari ya kujiua kuendelea na maisha.

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Jamii

Kanuni Mpya za Maudhui ya Mtandaoni: Kikwazo kingine cha uhuru wa kujieleza, kupata taarifa

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Kwa muda mrefu sasa intaneti imekuwa ni jukwaa muhimu la kuwaunganisha watumiaji wa mitandao ya kijamii duniani kote; kupashana habari na kupadilishana uzoefu wa kijamii, kiuchumi, kisiasa na hata kiutamaduni.

Lakini habari sio njema  kwa watanzania wanaotumia majukwaa ya mtandaoni kwasababu serikali imeweka baadhi ya vikwazo kwa watu kuwa huru kutoa maoni na kupata habari kupitia blogu (blog) ambapo waanzilishi watatakiwa kulipa kiasi kisichopungua milioni 1 Ili wapate leseni ya kuendesha shughuli zao.

Malipo hayo ni sehemu ya masharti ya Kanuni mpya za maudhui ya mtandaoni ambazo zimepitishwa hivi karibuni na serikali. Waanzilishi wote wa blogu watatakiwa kupata kibali toka serikalini na kulipa ada ya mwaka kabla ya kuanza shughuli za mtandaoni.

Kanuni hizo mpya pia zitawahusu wamiliki wa redio na runinga za mtandaoni (online TV’s) ambapo hatua hiyo inatajwa kuwa itawaathiri kwa kiasi kikubwa watumiaji wa majukwaa na mitandao ya kijamii.

Athari mojawapo ni kukosa uhuru wa kujumuika na kupata taarifa kutokana na ada itakayotozwa na serikali kila mwaka; ikizingatiwa kuwa blogu nyingi hazitengenezi faida na zimewekwa mahususi kwaajili ya kuwakutanisha watu kujadili mstakabali wa maisha yao.

Kwa mujibu wa Kanuni hizo ili mtu akubalike kutoa huduma, muombaji atalazimika kujaza fomu inayoelezea gharama tarajiwa za uwekezaji, idadi ya wakurugenzi, na wana hisa wa jukwaa husika (blogu). Pia kila mwana hisa anapaswa kuainisha mtaji aliochangia kwenye huduma husika, tarehe ya kuanza kufanya kazi na mipango ya baadaye ya ukuaji wa blogu.

Licha ya mamlaka husika kutoa kibali au leseni ya kuendesha blogu, pia ina nguvu kisheria kunyang’anya kibali/leseni ikiwa tovuti au blogu itachapisha maudhui yanayodhaniwa ‘ kusababisha au kuhatarisha amani, kuchochea machafuko au uhalifu’ au ‘yanatishia usalama wa taifa au afya na usalama wa umma’.

Waliopewa mamlaka ya kusimamia maudhui ya mtandaoni ambao ni Mamlaka ya Mawasiliano Tanzania (TCRA) watakuwa na uwezo wa kuwalazimisha wamiliki wa blogu au tovuti kuondoa maudhui yanayodhaniwa kuwa hayafai ndani ya saa 12 na kama hawajatimiza maagizo hayo wanaweza kulipa fidia isiyopungua milioni tano  au kifungo kisichopungua mwaka mmoja jela.

Kanuni hizo ambazo zinatajwa kuwa ni tishio kwa uhuru wa kujieleza nchini, zimepewa jina la Kanuni za Maudhui ya Mtandao za mwaka 2018 (Electronic and Postal Communications (Online Content) Regulations 2018). Kimsingi zinaipa serikali nguvu  zisizo na mipaka za kusimamia mitandao.

Kanuni hizo zinaongeza nguvu juu ya Sheria ya Takwimu ya mwaka 2015, Sheria ya Huduma ya Habari ya mwaka 2016 na Sheria ya Makosa ya Mtandao  ya mwaka 2015 ambazo zimekuwa zikilalamikiwa na wadau wa maendeleo kuwa ni mkakati wa kudhoofisha uhuru wa kutoa maoni, uwazi na uwajibikaji nchini.

Tangu zilipopendekezwa mwaka jana, wanaharakati na watetezi wa haki za binadamu ikiwemo Mkurugenzi Mtendaji wa JamiiForums, Maxence Melo walijitokeza na kuhoji baadhi ya vipengele ambavyo vilionekana kukiuka faragha za watu, kuminya uhuru wa wananchi kujieleza na kutoa maoni. Pia zinaenda kinyume na utamaduni  wa kuifanya intaneti kuwa huru.

Kwa muktadha huo wamiliki wa vibanda vya intaneti (intaneti cafes) watalazimika kufunga kamera za CCTV ili kurekodi matukio yote kwenye maeneo ya biashara zao ili kuhakikisha kunakuwa na kumbukumbu sahihi.

Gharama za kuanzisha blogu zinatajumuisha,  ada ya maombi (100,000), ada ya leseni (milioni 1), ada ya mwaka (100,000) ambapo leseni itatumika kwa miaka 3 na baada ya hapo muhusika anaweza kulipia sh. Milioni 1 ili aendelee kutoa huduma.

Kwa upande wa runinga za mtandaoni watalipa zaidi ya milioni 2, huku redio za mtandaoni nazo zitalazimika kulipa laki nne na elfu sababini ili kuendelea kutoa huduma hizo.

Hatua hizo zinadaiwa kuwa ni muendelezo wa serikali kudhibiti uhuru wa vyombo vya habari na uhuru wa kujieleza ambapo kwa kutumia sheria ‘tata’ baadhi ya watu wanaotumia mitandao ya kijamii wamefikishwa kwenye vyombo vya dola kwa makosa ya ‘uchochezi’.

Kulingana na taasisi ya  Freedom House (2018) inaeleza kuwa misingi ya demokrasia ikiwemo uhuru wa vyombo vya habari na haki ya kukusanyika imeendelea kudhoofika nchini Tanzania na hali hiyo isiporekebishwa itaingia kwenye kundi la nchi zisizo na uhuru kabisa duniani.

Tahadhari hiyo inatokana na mwenendo wa viongozi wa serikali kufungia vyombo vya habari, kuzuia mikutano ya hadhara ya vyama vya siasa, kushtakiwa kwa watumiaji wa mitandao ya kijamii kwa tuhuma za uchochezi na kukamatwa kwa wapinzani wa kisiasa ambao wanakosoa na kutoa mawazo yanayotofautiana na serikali.

Tumeshuhudia magazeti yakifungiwa kwa kile kinachodaiwa kuwa yanaandika habari za uongo ambazo zinalenga kupotosha na kuchochea ubaya ndani ya umma. Mpaka sasa magazeti yamewahi kufungiwa katika awamu ya tano ya uongozi ni Tanzania Daima, MwanaHalisi, Mawio, Raia Mwema na Mseto.

Baadhi ya runinga na radio nazo zimekuwa zikipewa maonyo ya mara kwa mara ili kuziweka katika mstari unaotakiwa. Hali hiyo imeelezwa kuwa inahatarisha uhuru wa vyombo vya habari na haki ya wananchi kupata taarifa.

Haya yote yanatokea Tanzania, ambako juhudi mbalimbali za kuinua sekta ya teknolojia ya mawasiliano na habari zinaendelea ili kushindana na nchi jirani za Afrika Mashariki kama Kenya.  “Masharti ya usajili na ada yanaonekana kuwa mzigo mkubwa kwa waanzilishi wa blogu na runinga za mtandaoni, hatimaye kukamwamisha mchakato wa kuinua uhuru wa habari nchini”, amesema, Angela Quintal, Mkurugenzi wa Kamati ya Afrika ya Kuwalinda wanahabari.

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