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Biashara/Uchumi

NGORONGORO: The Eden of our time

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Many residents and tourists from outside Tanzania who get the chance to visit Ngorongoro Conservation area and particularly the Crater, believe the place is like Eden, the garden mentioned in the Holy Books – the Bible and the Koran where people at that time co-existed with vicious and non-vicious animals, insects and various bird species. Our Staff Writer SIMON MKINA visited there recently and gives an account of life in this enticing area.

Many tourists visiting attractive places believe Tanzania is a country of milk and honey like Canaan as mentioned in the Holy Books. They narrate that it is a country endowed with special favors and has every reason to be prosperous due to richness of her natural resources and attractions.

“Why? I see your country has vast wealth while many of her people live in difficulty; in poverty and worry…I don’t know why poverty continues to besiege the lives of Tanzanians,” asks Lauren, an American tourist in the company of the writer of this article after being perplexed in his first day of entering Serengeti National Park on their way to Ngorongoro.

All the time she sees a wild animal or animals she becomes excited and astonished exclaiming  ‘wow’ all the time  since the morning of the first day of the three-day safari.

 “Is it corruption, lack of the sense of duty or is it the laziness of the people themselves or are you short of proper plans?” asks the 26- year- old- lady from the State of Oregon.

She explains that if America had been endowed with an attractive environment such as this one in Tanzania’s, America, presently the wealthiest country in the world, would have comparatively developed more by now.

The guest, seemingly upset at times, posed at seeing an animal with a small body but looking healthy with two protruding teeth structure; and she exclaimed wow…that is the wild boar.

In no time various kinds of animals came into view and the exclamations increased –wow– forgetting what she had been saying about Tanzanian lives and their poverty in spite of many rich attractions.

Lauren and other accompanying tourists while still inside the Serengeti National Park came across giraffes, elephants, monkeys, light-colored monkeys, buffaloes, Grant gazelles, hartebeest and many more. The hartebeest are many accompanied by zebras.

                      The Empakaai Crater (at Ngorongoro) is a collapsed volcanic caldera which is 300 meters high and has a width of 6 km.
                       The Crater is filled with a deep alkaline lake which occupies about 75% of the Crater's floor and is about 85 meters deep.

The guide from Africa Safari Company of Mwanza, Robert astonished tourists accompanying Lauren by amazingly explained the lifestyle of every kind of animal in view.  He explained why the hartebeest are in such abundance than any other animal species in the Serengeti, saying that this was because they are in search of better fodder. He said the animals roam between the Serengeti and Maasai Mara in Kenya, an exercise done once a year in January, to be repeated the following January.

Robert further explained that the hartebeest are in company of zebras for one big reason which is of assistance to them. Robert, an ex-veterinary doctor by profession, said the hartebeest follow zebras because they believe that the latter are swift in detecting enemies, so having them near helps them to avoid danger.

He also says on the part of zebras, despite their swiftness in detecting enemies, they are stupid in detecting where good fodder is, so they follow the hartebeest because they are experts in that sphere of finding where good fodder is throughout the year.

Robert’s explanation concerning the life styles of almost every animal is amazing. On Grant gazelles, he said a male animal can service about 100 females or more and that male defends them all against other males.

“When you see a big herd of Grant gazelles you should know that all of them are females with a single male whom you can recognize by looking at the horns because males have long horns which are wide where they join the head. No other male can go near there and if that happens there will be a fight until one of the contestants runs away or dies as a result of the fight and the winner will own that big herd of females,” he explained.

On zebras, he said in spite of looking very similar, the truth is that those animals with white and ashy stripes and those with black and dark-red ones are not similar whatsoever; if you go near them you will realize that the stripes are different from one zebra to another.

Explaining the lifestyle of elephants, Robert said the cow elephant controls the male elephant such that it can’t engage in a fight unless permitted by the cow. He also asserted that the male lion is dependent of the lioness in everything. A lioness hunts for food but can’t eat until the male appears to “bless” the food. “When a lioness kills game, she will wait until the male returns notwithstanding how hungry she may be and how far away the male is-although most of the time the male is around when she hunts,” Robert added.

 

 WHERE EDEN IS IN THE WORLD NOW

After a 26-hour journey around the great Serengeti National Park, Lauren and fellow tourists including five others and a 16-month old baby, Abel II, entered the Ngorongoro Conservation area where animals are like those found in the Serengeti–although not in such big numbers.

It was a cool serene morning with a very cold breeze blowing swiftly from one side when three Maasai youth were seen driving cattle towards inside the crater.

Lauren was amazed to see those youth, cattle, goats and sheep at a place where ferocious animals like lions and others live. Robert told her and the entire group in the car not to fear for animals in these areas because they are friendly to human beings and their herds. He notified her that later in the safari she would see wild animals and domesticated ones eating grass together. The tourists were confounded by this explanation, each one asking oneself how can it be that wild animals like lions live with human beings?

Before the answer to the question is given, the vehicle started to drive down a steep road in low gear and Robert was explaining that they were now entering the Ngorongoro crater. Because the road was very steep, the vehicle was leaning forward and seeing the driver in so serious a concentration on the road, nobody uttered a word. Possibly everyone was saying a prayer asking God to help the driver in his difficult task of guiding the vehicle descending the escarpment.

Soon the vehicle reached the low straight plain ushering the beginning of a tour in the Crater itself. The first animal to be seen was a hyena lying down nursing her cubs. Neither the hyena nor the cubs showed any concern even when the vehicle pulled near the place she was lying down. Perhaps that animal was wondering at seeing human beings staring at her.

More animals could now be seen in the crater feeding as others basked in the sun for it was starting to rise. Lions were lying down in a group not far from a herd of four African buffaloes basking in the sun. Further away Grant antelopes, zebras and hartebeests could be seen mixed with cattle while goats were walking here and there in the crater. Two elephants, a male and a cow were eating shrubs very near wild boar and African hartebeest also eating grass.

In the same area near the elephants were standing seven Maasai youth without worrying about their own safety or of the animals they were herding. One of the youths who introduced himself by the name of Olosolot said he did not fear the animals in the crater because they were friends. He explained that in spite of his love for meat he can’t kill an animal in the crater because they are friends.

He added confidently: “Even these animals are aware that we are friends and not one can do harm to another. When we want to eat meat and drink blood we eat one of our own cattle and not the animals in the crater.”

In the crater water could be seen and Robert explained that it is a small lake called Makat which has water containing a lot of salt. The little lake seemed surrounded by soda ash which was evident. He explained that although the lake is not deep, it does not dry the whole year thus animals and birds love to be near it most of them eating grass said to contain more salt.

Flamingoes could be seen in the water of the lake with their long legs, proving that it is not deep. The multitude of these birds makes the whole lake look white and pink from afar but when you get nearer you realize that the colors are of birds. The birds eat small insects obtained in the salty water and vegetation growing in and around the shore.

 

Flamingoes could be seen in the water of the lake with their long legs, proving that it is not deep. Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania.

 

Another group of Maasai youth are seen in the crater with spears in their hands without worrying; the youth explain that their duty is to teach younger boys how to graze their animals and live peacefully with their siblings. What are the spears for? They say the spears are for keeping the peace within the crater; for if it happens an animal wants another animal’s meat, it is their duty to volunteer to protect that animal.

It is said that animals like lions that dwells in the crater get their food outside that unique place. “When a lion is hungry, he leaves the crater and climbs outside the crater to find food but not hunt inside here,” one youth explains.

He explains that the secret behind that life among wild ferocious and peaceful animals; is possible because the animals are able to detect the smell of the “citizens” of the crater and they feel and consider them their kind.

What if a new person from outside comes into the crater? The youth answers that the possibility of being attacked is great–which explains why officials of the game reserves dissuade tourists or guests from getting out of their vehicles or going near the animals.

Apart from animals, birds and humans in the crater, there are varieties of exotic flowers in yellow, red, green and white colors which makes the crater to be likened to the paradise that is mentioned in the holy books.

The crater, with an area of 264 sq. kilometers at any one given time has 25,000 animals everyday, most of them being hartebeests, African antelopes, zebra, lions, hyenas, wild boars and a small number of rhinoceros, monkeys and small light colored monkeys. There are many other animals grazing inside the crater said to be 630 meters below sea level.

This is the communal life being practiced between wild animals, tamed animals and human beings–all eating and drinking water in the Ngorongoro Crater. It is a good and appealing life as described in the Holy Books as life in Eden or Paradise.

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Biashara/Uchumi

Ukosefu wa taarifa sahihi za viwango na aina ya samaki wakwamisha ujenzi wa viwanda nchini

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Tanzania itaanza kufaidika na rasilimali za bahari baada ya kuanza kutekeleza Programu ya Udhibiti na Matumizi Endelevu wa Rasilimali Samaki (EAF-Nansen) kudhibiti mabadiliko ya tabia na uchafuzi wa mazingira yanavyoathiri uzalishaji wa mazingira ya bahari na afya.

Programu ya EAF-Nansen inayofadhiliwa na Norway na kutekelezwa na Shirika la Chakula na Kilimo la Umoja wa Mataifa (FAO) kwa kushirikiana na Taasisi ya Utafiti wa Mambo ya Bahari ya Norway (IMR) itasaidia kutunza mazingira na mifumo ya ikolojia kwa upande mmoja na kutatua mahitaji ya binadamu ya chakula na faida za kiuchumi.

Programu hiyo imekuja siku chache baada ya meli ya kisasa ya utafiti wa samaki na mazingira baharini yenye jina la Dkt. Fridtjof Nansen kukamilisha uchunguzi wake wa rasilimali na mazingira bahari katika maji ya Bahari ya Hindi nchini Tanzania.

Meli hiyo imebaini kuwa Tanzania ina uhaba wa taarifa sahihi za viwango na aina ya samaki, hali inayokwamisha ujenzi wa viwanda vya kusindika samaki nchini.

Chini ya Mpango wa Programu ya EAF-Nansen, meli hiyo inaendesha utafiti wake wa rasilimali bahari na mazingira baharini katika ukanda wa Kusini Mashariki mwa Afrika na Bahari ya Hindi. Nchi thelathini za Kiafrika ikiwemo Tanzania zitapata msaada wa kitaalamu na kisayansi wa namna ya kudhibiti rasilimali zao za samaki na viumbe bahari wengine kwa kutumia na kutekeleza mpango endelevu wa utunzaji wa mazingira.

Akizungumza katika hafla fupi ya kilele cha utafiti huo iliyofanyika ndani ya meli iliyotia nanga katika Bandari ya Dar es Salaam, Katibu mkuu kiongozi, Balozi John Kijazi amesema mpango huo umekuja kwa wakati muafaka kwani utachochea kasi ya uanzishwaji wa viwanda hapa nchini hususani katika sekta ya uvuvi.

Hii ni hatua kubwa sana kwa Tanzania ambayo itafaidika na huduma za utafiti wa kisasa wa meli hii kupitia ushirikiano wa wadau hapa nikizungumzia FAO na Serikali ya Norway, kuweza kujua kwa uhakika aina na kiwango cha samaki na rasilimali bahari nyingine tulizonazo katika maji yetu,” amesema Balozi Kijazi.

Amesema taarifa kuhusu rasilimali bahari yetu ni muhimu sana katika kufanya maamuzi na kupata fursa za ndani na kimataifa za uwekezaji katika sekta ya uvuvi na kutilia maanani mambo muhimu ya utunzaji wa mazingira.

Kwa kutumia taarifa sahihi tunaweza kuwavutia wawekezaji kuja na kujenga viwanda vya kusindika samaki na vingine vinavyohusiana na sekta hii ya uvuvi na hivyo kuongeza kasi kwenye mpango wetu wa kujenga Tanzania ya viwanda,” amesema Balozi Kijazi.

Kwa upande wake,Waziri wa Mifugo na Uvuvi, Luhaga Joelson Mpina amesema, mpango huo utaongeza ajira na matumizi ya teknolojia ya kisasa katika sekta ya uvuvi. “Hii itatuwezesha kupata wawekezaji katika eneo hili ambao watajenga viwanda vya kuchakata na kusindika mazao ya samaki ambapo mbali ya kutoa fursa za ajira kwa watu wetu hususani vijana katika mnyororo wa thamani, lakini pia utakuza mapato ya Serikali.”

Wadau wa mazingira wanasema ikiwa mpango huo utatekelezwa kikamilifu unaweza kusaidia kupunguza athari za mabadiliko ya hali ya hewa ambayo yameathiri uhai wa bahari na rasilimali zilizopo.

Mbali ya taarifa ambazo zitawezesha udhibiti bora wa rasilimali kwa matumizi endelevu, utafiti huu utapekelea uelewa mzuri wa athari za mabadiliko ya tabia nchi na athari nyingine za nje, kama vile uchafuzi wa mazingira na mifumo ya uhai baharini.,” amesema Mwakilishi wa FAO nchini Tanzania, Fred Kafeero.

Programu ya Udhibiti na Matumizi Endelevu wa Rasilimali Samaki (EAF) imekuwa ni moja ya marejeo makuu za FAO katika kusaidia nchi katika juhudi zao za kudhibiti na kutekeleza kanuni za maendeleo endelevu.

Kwa mujibu wa FAO, programu ya EAF ni njia ya kutekeleza kanuni sahihi za uvuvi kwa kutoa mwongozo wa namna ya kufikia malengo ya sera ya kiuchumi, kijamii na ikolojia kupitia malengo, viashiria na njia za tathimini. EAF inanuia kuweka uwiano kati ya mambo mawili muhimu; Utunzaji wa mazingira na mifumo ya ikolojia kwa upande mmoja na kuweza kutatua mahitaji ya binadamu ya chakula na faida za kiuchumi upande mwingine.

Uvuvi haramu bado ni changamoto

Utafiti uliotolewa hivi karibuni na Taasisi ya Overseas Development ya nchini Uingereza unaeleza tatizo la uvuvi haramu kwenye bahari kuu ikiwemo bahari ya Hindi kwamba unachochewa zaidi na ukosefu wa miundombinu ya mawasiliano, ushirikiano na teknolojia ya kutunza takwimu za meli za uvuvi kwenye bahari kuu ikiwemo bahari ya Hindi ambayo inaunganisha mataifa mbalimbali duniani.

Tatizo ni kubwa kwa nchi za Afrika ambazo hazina teknolojia ya kisasa na taasisi imara za kusimamia uvuvi ambapo kila mwaka nchi za Afrika Magharibi zinapoteza Dola bilioni 2 za kimarekani huku nchi zinazotumia bahari ya Afrika Mashariki (Kenya, Tanzania, Mauritius, the Comoros, Mozambique, and the Seychelles ) zinapoteza zaidi dola milioni 200 kila mwaka.

Licha ya kila nchi kuwa na taratibu zake katika kupambana na uvuvi haramu, hazijafanikiwa kumaliza tatizo hilo na changamoto inayojitokeza kwenye ukusanyaji wa takwimu na matumizi ya vifaa vya kusimamia mwenendo wa meli katika eneo la bahari kuu.

Utafiti huo unaeleza kuwa ili kufuatilia eneo na safari, meli zinapaswa kuwa na kifaa cha mawasiliano kijulikanacho, ‘Vessel Management Systems (VMS)’. Hata hivyo meli nyingi hazina kifaa hiki hasa katika nchi zinazoendelea ambako teknolojia hiyo haipatikani au wasimamizi wa meli huzima ili kuepuka kufuatiliwa na mamlaka husika.

Licha ya kifaa cha VMS kuwa na uwezo wa kutambua eneo, umbali na mwelekeo wa meli lakini hakiwezi kutambua meli zinazoharibu mazalia ya samaki na viumbe wengine wa baharini

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Biashara/Uchumi

Ushuru wa bidhaa: Kero ya Muungano iliyokosa ufumbuzi wa kudumu

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Serikali ya Tanzania Bara na ile ya Zanzibar kukutana kujadili kuhusu namna bora ya kupata ufumbuzi wa kudumu wa kero ya ulipaji kodi ya mizigo kutoka Zanzibar kwenda Tanzania Bara.

Hayo yameelezwa Bungeni Jijini Dodoma na Naibu Waziri wa Fedha na Mipango, Dk. Ashatu Kijaji alipokuwa akijibu swali la msingi la Mbunge wa Wingwi, Juma Kombo Hamad (CUF) aliyetaka kujua kama Serikali ipo tayari kuunda Kamati Ndogo ya Bunge kwa ajili ya kushughulikia mfumo wa ulipaji kodi ya mizigo kutoka Zanzibar kwenda Tanzania Bara.

Katika swali la msingi, Hamad ameeleza kuwa mfumo wa ulipaji kodi wa kusafirisha bidhaa kutoka Zanzibar kwenda Tanzania Bara umekuwa ukilalamikiwa kwa muda mrefu kwamba unawakwaza na kuvunja harakati za ukuaji wa sekta ya biashara Zanzibar na hivyo kusababisha uchumi wa nchi hiyo kushuka.

Akijibu swali hilo Dk. Kijaji, amesema kuwa Serikali hizo mbili zinaendelea kujadiliana ili suala hilo lipatiwe ufumbuzi wa kudumu na kuongeza kuwa Serikali hizo hazijashindwa kutatua changamoto hiyo na hakuna sababu ya kuunda kamati ya kushughulikia suala hilo.

Amesema chimbuko la malalamiko hayo linatokana na kuwepo kwa mifumo tofauti ya kutathmini bidhaa kati ya Zanzibar na Tanzania Bara hali inayosababishwa na viwango tofauti vya ushuru wa forodha vinavyopaswa kulipwa kwa bidhaa ya aina moja kutoka nje ya nchi na kusafirishwa kwenda sehemu ya pili ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania.

Dk. Kijaji amesema kuwa Mfumo wa uthaminishaji wa bidhaa zote zinazoingia Tanzania Bara unafanyika kwa kutumia mifumo ya ‘TANCIS’ na ‘Import Export Commodity Database (IECD) inayoratibiwa na kituo cha Huduma za Forodha kilichopo Dar es Salaam, lakini Serikali ya Mapinduzi ya Zanzibar haitumii mifumo hiyo na kusababisha kuwepo na tofauti ya kodi kati ya Bara na Zanzibar.

Kutokana na utofauti wa mifumo inayotumika, bidhaa zote za nje zinazoingia Tanzania Bara kupitia Zanzibar hufanyiwa uhakiki licha ya kuwa zimethaminiwa Zanzibar, iwapo uthamini wa Tanzania Bara utakuwa sawa na ule uliofanywa Zanzibar hakuna kodi itakayotozwa Tanzania Bara na ikiwa kodi iliyolipwa Zanzibar ni ndogo, Mamlaka ya Mapato hukusanya tofauti ya kodi iliyozidi”, amesema Dk. Kijaji.

Kulingana na utaratibu wa Mamlaka ya Mapato Tanzania (TRA), Ushuru wa bidhaa ni kodi inayotozwa kwa bidhaa au huduma maalumu zilizozalishwa ndani ya nchi au kuingizwa nchini kwa viwango tofauti. Kodi hii inatozwa katika viwango maalumu na viwango kulingana na thamani.

Dk. Kijaji amesisitiza kuwa utaratibu wa kukusanya tofauti ya kodi kati ya Zanzibar na Bara kwa kutumia mifumo ya TANCIS na IECD haina lengo la kuua biashara Zanzibar, bali hatua hiyo inalenga kuleta usawa wa gharama za kufanya biashara na ushindani hapa nchini.

Aidha Naibu Waziri huyo amesema kuwa kwa mujibu wa Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania Ibara ya 63 (2) Bunge ni muhimili unaojitegemea na hivyo Serikali haina mamlaka ya kuunda Kamati ndogo ya Bunge kwa ajili ya jambo hilo au jambo lolote.

Ikumbukwe kuwa kodi ya Mapato na ushuru wa bidhaa katika ya nchi hizo mbili umekuwa ni kero ya muda mrefu ya Muungano ambayo haijapatiwa ufumbuzi na kwa nyakati tofauti Wazanzibar wamekuwa wakilalamika kukosa sauti kwenye mapato wakidai hakuna usawa kwenye suala hilo.

Mwanasheria kutoka Zanzibar, Awadh Ali Said, alipokuwa anazungumzia matatizo ya Muungano katika muktadha wa mapato alinukuliwa; “suala la mapato linaanguka katika suala la uchumi huku uchumi ukiwa si suala la muungano”.

Anaongeza kwamba; “kila mmoja (kati ya Tanganyika na Zanzibar) ina uchumi wake na mzigo wa kushughulikia lakini nyenzo kuu za uchumi ambazo ni sera za fedha, sera za kodi, benki kuu, yote hayo yako upande mmoja (Tanzania Bara)”.

Kutokana na hali hiyo upande wa Zanzibar umekuwa ukilalamika kukosa nguvu ya kudhibiti uchumi na sarafu. Suala la kodi limezungumzwa kwa muda mrefu lakini mpaka sasa halijapatiwa ufumbuzi baina ya nchi hizo mbili.

Januari 4, mwaka huu, Rais wa Zanzbar, Dk. Ali Mohammed Shein wakati wa ufunguzi wa jengo la Takwimu mjini Zanzibar, alinukuliwa akisema “si busara kwa mambo ya muungano kufanywa upande mmoja tu au upande mmoja kuonekana unajivutia wenyewe kila kitu, hali hiyo inaweza kuleta madhara makubwa katika utendaji wa masuala ya muungano.”

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Biashara/Uchumi

Mradi wa Stiegler’s Gorge kutua mikononi mwa Kamati ya Urithi wa Dunia

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Kamati ya Urithi wa Dunia ya Umoja wa Mataifa inatarajia kuamua kama Pori la akiba la Selous liondolewe miongoni mwa maeneo ya urithi wa dunia, kufuatia Serikali ya Tanzania kuanza mchakato wa kujenga bwawa la Stiegler’s Gorge kwa ajili ya kuzalisha umeme wa kilowati 2,100 ndani ya pori hilo.

Kamati hiyo inatarajia kukutana baadaye mwezi Juni katika jiji la Manama, Bahrain na miongoni mwa ajenda zitakazojadiliwa ni uamuzi wa Serikali kujenga mradi mkubwa wa kuzalisha umeme katika pori hilo ambalo ni urithi muhimu wa dunia ambao uko hatarini kutoweka.

Kamati hiyo inakutana kila mwaka na kikao cha mwaka huu kitakuwa cha 42 tangu kuanzishwa kwake na ina kazi moja kubwa ya kujadili maendeleo ya utunzaji wa maeneo ya urithi na kufanya maamuzi ya kufuta au kuendelea kuyaweka maeneo yaliyopewa hadhi ya kuwa kwenye orodha ya Urithi wa dunia ulio katika hatari ya kutoweka.

Akizungumza hivi karibuni na jarida moja la kila wiki la Afrika Mashariki, Meneja wa Programu wa Kituo cha Urithi wa Dunia cha Shirika la Umoja wa Mataifa la Elimu, Sayansi na Utamaduni (UNESCO), Richard Lo Giudice amesema; mradi wa uzalishaji umeme katika pori la Selous utajadiliwa kwenye mkutano wa mwaka wa Kamati ya Urithi wa Dunia na kisha UNESCO itatoa mrejesho.

Suala hilo litajadiliwa katika kikao cha 42 cha Kamati ya Urithi wa Dunia itakayoketi Manama kuanzia Juni 24 hadi Julai 4, wakati inatathmini hali ya uhifadhi wa pori la akiba la Selous,” alinukuliwa Giudice na jarida hilo.

Serikali imetenga Bilioni 700 ambayo ni sawa na asilimia 41 ya bajeti ya Wizara ya Nishati ya mwaka wa fedha wa 2018/2019 inayofikia Trilioni 1.69 kwaajili ya mradi huo, ambapo imesema ni muhimu kwa ajili ya uzalishaji wa umeme ili kuchochea ajenda ya uchumi wa viwanda.

Licha ya tahadhari iliyotolewa na wadau mbalimbali wa mazingira na wanasiasa akiwemo Mbunge wa Kigoma mjini, Zitto Kabwe na Nape Nnauye wa Mtama kuhusu athari zitakazotokea endapo mradi huo utatekelezwa, bado Serikali imeendelea kushikiria msimamo wake wa kujenga mradi huo kwa madai kuwa wanaokosoa hawaitakii nchi mema.

Serikali ilienda mbali zaidi na kutahadharisha mtu yeyote atakayejaribu kuzuia mradi huo atakabiliwa na hatua kali za kisheria ikiwemo kufungwa jela.

Piga ua, garagaza Serikali itatekeleza mradi wa Stiegler’s Gorge. Hawa wanaopinga mradi huu ukiwatazama wanataka umeme ufike vijijini mwao, ukiwatazama wengine ni wachumi wanapinga’” alinukuliwa Naibu Waziri wa Ofisi ya Makamu wa Rais, Muungano na Mazingira, Kangi Lugola wakati akijibu hoja za wabunge Mei 26 mwaka huu.

Kamati ya Urithi wa Dunia inajumuisha wawakilishi 21 ambao wanachaguliwa na Baraza la Umoja wa Mataifa kwa ajili ya kuratibu shughuli za ulinzi wa Urithi na Utamaduni wa dunia.

“Hilo litakuwa pigo kwa asili,” limesema shirika la uhifadhi wa asili la World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Bwawa hilo litakuwa na urefu wa mita 130 na upana wa mita 700. Litatengeneza ziwa kubwa la zaidi ya kilomita 1000 za mraba, na maji yatasambaa katika eneo ambalo ni kubwa hata kushinda jiji la Berlin, Ujerumani.

 

Mambo Bayana

Kamati ya Urithi wa Dunia itakutana wakati Serikali kupitia Wakala wa Misitu Tanzania imetoa zabuni ya kukata miti isiyopungua milioni mbili katika eneo la Selous ambalo baadhi ya wabunge wamesema lina ukubwa unaolingana na jiji la Dar es Salaam.

Zabuni hiyo pia itahusisha ukataji na uuzaji wa miti hiyo ili kuiingizia Serikali mapato yatakayotumika katika huduma za kijamii.

Lakini wanaopinga mradi huo, wanaeleza kuwa miti itakayokatwa ni mingi sana na ujenzi wa bwawa hilo utasababisha athari za mazingira zinazoweza kuangamiza wanyama wengi zaidi na kuchangia ongezeko la joto duniani.

Kwa mujibu wa Ripoti ya Tathmini ya Mazingira juu ya Mradi pendekezwa wa Stiegler’s Gorge iliyotolewa mwaka 2009 na Prof. Raphael Mwalyosi wa Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam imebainisha wazi kuwa kutakuwa na athari kubwa katika eneo la Selous endapo mradi huo utatekelezwa.

Hata hivyo ripoti hiyo inaeleza kuwa mradi huo utazalisha umeme wa kutosha lakini ina mashaka juu ya matokeo ya kijamii na kiuchumi yanayoweza kupatikana.

Wachambuzi wa masuala ya mazingira, wanaeleza kuwa Tanzania ina kibarua kigumu cha kujieleza mbele ya kamati hiyo ikizingatiwa kuwa ni miongoni mwa wanachama wa kamati hiyo muhimu duniani. Nchi zingine za Afrika ambazo zinaingia katika kamati hiyo ni Burkina Faso, Tunisia, Uganda na Zimbabwe.

Kamati hiyo itakuwa na kazi ya kutathmini hali ya utunzaji wa maeneo mbalimbali yaliyoko kwenye urithi wa dunia na kuzitaka nchi wawakilishi kuchukua hatua za kutunza na kuhifadhi urithi huo ili kuhakikisha dunia inakuwa mahali salama pa kuishi.

       Baadhi ya wanyama kuathirika na mradi wa umeme

Historia ya Pori la Selous

Pori la Akiba la Selous ambalo lina eneo la kilomita 50,000 za mraba, ni moja ya mbuga kubwa zaidi barani Afrika, ambayo inajulikana kwa kupatikana kwa tembo, vifaru weusi, duma, twiga, viboko, mamba, na wanyama pori wengine.

Pia pori hilo lina aina nyingi tofauti ya viumbe wa pori, vikiwemo miombo, msitu, sehemu za nyasi, kinamasi, ikisemekana kuwa mbuga hiyo ni maabara ya mabadiliko ya kibaolojia na kiekolojia.

Uwindaji kwa ajili ya biashara unaruhusiwa katika mbuga ya Selous. Ni chanzo cha pato kwa mbuga hiyo na zaidi ya watu milioni 1.2 ambao wanaishi viungani mwa mbuga hiyo. Katika baadhi ya maeneo, uwindaji haukubaliwi kabisa. Watalii wanaweza kuzuru. Lakini kuna watalii wachache ikilinganishwa na mbuga ya kitaifa ya Serengeti, ingawa mbuga ya Selous imeizidi Serengeti mara tatu kwa ukubwa.

Mto Rufiji ni mwokozi wa mbuga hiyo. Ni mto wenye urefu wa kilomita 600 na unaishia katika Bahari ya Hindi kusini mwa Dar es Salaam, lakini maji ya mto kwa sehemu kubwa yatatumika kuzalisha umeme.

Kutokana na umuhimu wake, mwaka 1982, UNESCO lilitangaza na kuiingiza Selous miongoni wa maeneo machache ya urithi wa dunia na kuanza kuhifadhiwa.

Lakini mwaka 2014, Kamati ya Urithi wa Dunia ya UNESCO, iliyokutana mjini Doha, Qatar, iliingiza mbuga ya Hifadhi ya Wanyama ya Selous, iliyopo kusini mashariki mwa Tanzania katika orodha ya Urithi wa Dunia ulio Hatarini kutoweka, kwa sababu ya ujangili wa kupindukia.

Ujangili ulisababisha kupungua kwa idadi ya wanyamapori, hasa kwa upande wa tembo na vifaru, ambao idadi yao imepungua kwa asilimia 90 tangu 1982, wakati mbuga hiyo ilipoorodheshwa kwenye urithi wa dunia.

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