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More corruption involving Norwegian REDD funding in Tanzania?

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In 2006, an evaluation of Norwegian aid to Tanzania revealed that about US$30 million had been lost to corruption and mismanagement in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. The money was about half of the total that Norway spent on a Management of Natural Resources Programme. This week, Norwegian aid is in the headlines again over allegations of corruption in Tanzania.

Norway supported the MNRP from 1994 to 2006 to the tune of US$5 million a year. An independent evaluation in 2006 found that money was syphoned off through buying overpriced or non-existent goods and services. Procurement rules were not followed. More than half of Norway’s money went on workshops and “capacity building” exercises. Large amounts of money were lost to the “per diem culture” that surrounds aid-agency funded workshops in Africa.

Norway stopped aid to Tanzania. But after Tanzania returned a small part of the missing money, Norway turned the aid flow back on, committing US$100 million over five years for forest climate projects in Tanzania. Some of the money went to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism – the same Ministry that had syphoned off US$30 million from the MNRP budget.

This time around, Norway wanted Tanzanian-based NGO to implement the REDD projects. WWF were hired to work on a project titled “Strengthening Capacity of Environmental Civil Society Organizations”. Last year WWF was embroiled in a corruption scandal in Tanzania and recently returned just over US$120,000 to Norway.[*]

Norway chose to work with the Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST) to implement a US$3.9 million project titled, “Piloting REDD in the Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves”. The contract between Norway’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and WCST can be downloaded here (pdf file, 313.3 kB) and the annexes to the contract here (pdf file, 2.7 MB).

The four-year REDD project started in February 2011 and was aimed at reducing deforestation and “improving carbon stocks” in the Pugu and Kazimzumbwi forest areas near Dar Es Salaam, the largest city in Tanzania. At the end of the first year, the Tanzania Forest Conservation Group reported that the forests continued to be destroyed, mainly for charcoal production. TFCG estimated that at the current rates of destruction, Kazimzumbwi will be completely deforested by the end of 2014 and Pugu by the end of 2017.

In 2012, consulting firm Deloite produced a mid-term review of the WCST project. While the tone of the report is positive, there are warning signs. “Significant work remains on the ground level,” Deloite writes.

The stated project goal, “to manage the forest properly including participation of communities, supports surrounding community livelihood and provides ecosystem services” has not been observed during site visits and document review. Overall, the project has made progress, yet as the project has only just completed the inception phase, quantifiable impacts towards the stated goal are not yet appreciable.

In May 2012, Ivar Jørgensen, a senior adviser with NORAD, visited the project. He told the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten that, “WCST did not follow the agreement, did not cooperate with other actors as they were supposed to and did not have the correct contacts with the authorities.”

When Inger Naess, Counsellor at the Norwegian Embassy in Dar es Salaam, tried to visit the project site in June 2012, she was advised not to go because of the level of conflict over the use of the forest. Conflicts took place between local communities in the area, between Government departments and between communities and WCST staff. Communities were upset because WCST had not implemented an alternative livelihoods strategy that was part of the project design.

Naess visited the project area in August 2012, but found that the few project activities that had been set up were inoperative and parts of the forest had burned down.

Norway stopped disbursement to the project and commissioned an external audit by Baker & Tilly. The audit found that disbursed funds were not accounted for, procurements were massively overpriced and payments were made for services that were never provided.

On Sunday, 3 February 2012, Norway’s largest newspaper, Aftenposten published an article about the misuse of Norwegian aid funds in Tanzania. The article (in Norwegian) can be downloaded by clicking on the image:

 

 

Aftenposten article

 

 

 

Here’s a rough translation of the Aftenposten article (based on google translate – any corrections from Norwegian speakers would be welcome!).

Conflict around money for forest protection

Misuse of Aid

By Siri Gedde-Dahl, Aftenposten, 3 February 2013

Cheating staff have repeatedly carted off Norwegian environmental assistance in Tanzania. Now, the Norwegian Embassy in Dar-es-Salaam halted payments to another organization.

This time we are talking about government’s prestigious project, the international forest campaign.

World Wildlife Fund (WWF) recently repaid Norad just over NOK 700,000 after malpractice cases related to environmental projects from the Norwegian aid budget in Tanzania, Congo and Kenya. Norway has now handed over the investigation of disloyalty to the local police, the organisation declared fit after a clean up and assistance opened up again to WWF. Meanwhile, the voluntary organisation Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST) has been put under scrutiny. The forest that Norwegian money was supposed preserve, is partially burnt down. And conflict over the use of resources has reached new heights.

Save the forests

WCST has been granted NOK 25 million to 2015, from the so-called REDD funds (see fact box). It was paid NOK 6.8 million in 2011. When WCST did not report on the project as agreed, all further payments were stopped in 2012. In December of the same year, the remaining amount of WCST’s project account was also frozen.

It’s almost been a year since the embassy took action. A new chief coordinator at WCST, took office in August and promised to clean up. But the Norwegian government has not yet received proper progress reports, financial statements and audit reports from WCST. Inger Naess, a Counsellor at the Norwegian Embassy in Dar es Salaam, said that the embassy has now requested audited accounts directly from WCST’s auditor, Deloitte. The embassy has ordered an external investigation from the firm Baker & Tilly.

The WCST project takes place in peri-urban forest at Pugu-Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves, near Dar-es-Salaam. The forest is protected, but the protection is not respected. Illegal construction and illegal logging for wood and charcoal production threaten the tropical forest. WCST is supposed to use the Norwegian money to help local people with alternative employment, control use of the forest, reduce conflicts, and assist people to take care of the forest.

A good start

The project aims to reduce CO2 emissions by preventing deforestation and forest degradation, according to the agreement with Norway.

“When I visited the area five to six months after the start, everything was good. They had established local tree nurseries, with trees for alternative charcoal production, and native trees for planting in the forest. They had also built a guardhouses at the entrance to the forest,” says Naess.

But when Ivar Jørgensen a senior advisor at Norad visited the project a few months later, in May 2012, things had become worse.

“WCST did not follow the agreement, did not cooperate with other actors as they were supposed to and did not have the correct contacts with the authorities,” says Jørgensen. So he sent a warning letter to the Norwegian Embassy in Dar es Saalam, which Aftenposten has seen.

Jørgensen says that later suspicion arose that project staff had been paid without having carrying out the work they should have.

When Naess wanted to visit the area again in June 2012 the level of conflict over the use of the forest had risen so much that she was advised not to travel into the area itself. She had to be content with talking to local authorities. In August 2012 she entered the forest. The guardhouses had been partially destroyed, the new tree nurseries were inoperative and parts of the forest had burned down. People without legal ownership had sold land inside the forest. Also, WCST had not done anything in particular to reduce the level of conflict.

The Embassy believes the contract has been breached because the activities have not been carried out. Naess says that today they have no basis to say whether there has been direct financial fraud.

The management of WCST were sent questions on Friday but by last night had not yet sent their comments.

Fact box: Aid Corruption in Tanzania

  • In 2008 comprehensive fraud was revealed in the Management of Natural Resources Programme Norwegian aid project. The case went deep into the Ministry of Wildlife and Tourism (MNRT). The first audit estimated that NOK 150 of the NOK 300 million had disappeared. Norway ended up having to claim back NOK 12 million. A number of critics believe Norway has not got to the bottom of the case and allowed cheats to escape.
  • In 2012 an audit report showed that NOK 2.4 million had disappeared in corruption and fraud relating to four aid projects run by WWF in Tanzania. The issue has boiled down to NOK 560 000, as Tanzania Norway has repaid the Foreign Ministry. WWF is out of the cold again to recieve funding for a variety of projects.
  • In 2012 Norway believes that the Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST) has breached the contract on Norwegian REDD money and has stopped further payments.
Fact box: Climate Aid

  • Norway will provide NOK 15 billion over five years as compensation for land / local people that contribute to cutting greenhouse gas emissions by reducing deforestation and planting new forests. Forests contribute to global emission reductions by binding CO2.
  • Tanzania will receive NOK 500 million of this money.
  • Much of the money channeled through the REDD programme, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation.
  • In Tanzania, nine non-governmental organizations (NGOs), including the WWF and the WCST, have received money for REDD pilot projects.
  • In addition, Norway provided funds for research and a secretariat to develop a national REDD strategy.
Risks must be taken

“If we are to bring anything through aid, we must be willing to take risks. It is also the signal from our Minister: We must be willing to take the risk, but also follow up with zero tolerance,” says Counsellor Inger Naess in Tanzania, with reference to development minister Heikki Holmås (SV).

Are the malpractice cases now coming up, the tip of an iceberg?

“I think it comes up more than before because we have followed up much more in the past four years. It is not necessarily more corruption. But we know there is corruption and breach of contract, and simply in part the lack of skills to manage money properly.”

Are you alarmed by the things that you have seen in recent years?

“This type of abuse is sad, not only in the aid sector, but in the country in general. It is mentioned in the papers and people react strongly. The opposition is running on this towards elections in 2015. It is bad to know that the scope is huge, but good to see that it is being addressed.”

Photo caption: Peri-urban forest at Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, Pugu-Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves, is prized as a recreational area. The protected forest area is threatened by illegal logging and development. Norwegian climate money was supposed to protect the area, but it has gone badly so far.

Photo: pugukwakiki.com


UPDATE – 7 February 2013: Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST) is a Tanzanian NGO. It has no links to the international NGO Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), which also works in Tanzania. Thanks to Tim Davenport for pointing this out. WCST’s website seems to be down, but a snapshot from 11 November 2010 is available on archive.org.


CORRECTION – 8 February 2013: This post originally stated that the US$120,000 that WWF returned to the Norwegian Government “is less than 10% of the US$1.3 million that was reported missing in an audit carried out by Ernst & Young”. In fact, AlertNet reported that the Ernst & Young audit found that “a share” of US$1.3 million disappeared, not the entire amount. Thanks to Jason Rubens for pointing this out.

SOURCE CREDIT: redd-monitor.org

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1 Comment

1 Comment

  1. nyaroge Chacha

    10/02/2013 at 8:34 am

    Hizo hela za REDD zinawanufaisha wachache na hasa NGO’s zinazojifanya zinatetea mazingira eg WCST, LEAT, WWf etc na wadau wengine kwenye huu mradi like UDBS, SUA etc..ilhal cha maana kuwasaidia wananchi wanaozunguka hifadhi ya msitu kuachana na ukataji miti hakua.

    UDBS ndo consultant alitakiwa aibuie miradi mbadala kwa wananchi hao ili waweze kuachana na biashara ya kukata kuni lakini wapiiiiiiiii, wanatafuna tu kihela na perdiem as usual kwa luandaa mikutano isiyokuwa na tija!!! Na bado zitaliwa sana, watu wamejenga majumba na kununua magar kwa hela za REDD!!!

    Chezea bongo ww?

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Jamii

Vigogo Halmashauri za Monduli, Karagwe, Biharamulo kikaangoni upotevu wa milioni 171.8 za miradi ya maji

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Maji ni uhai. Ni uhai kwasababu  yanabeba dhana nzima ya mwanadamu yeyote kuishi na kufanya shughuli zingine za maendeleo. Pia maji ni uhai kwasababu yanagusa sekta zote za uzalishaji, popote utakapokwenda utahitaji maji. Hiyo ndiyo thamani ya maji.

Ni dhahiri kuwa jambo lolote linalofanyika kwa nia ya kuvuruga au kuhalibu mfumo wa upatikanaji wa maji safi na salama, linalenga kuuawa uhai wa binadamu. Kuanzia kwenye uhalibifu wa mazingira, vyanzo vya maji, ukosefu wa rasilimali fedha na watu kutekeleza miradi ya maji hadi kukosekana kwa utashi wa kisiasa kuhakikisha wananchi wanapata maji ya uhakika.

Katika makala hii tunajadili matumizi mabaya ya fedha za miradi ya maendeleo katika baadhi ya halmashauri za wilaya nchini ambazo zimetumia vibaya fedha na kuwahatarishia uhai wakazi wa maeneo yao.

Halmashauri hizo ni Monduli, Karagwe na Biharamulo ambazo  zimekiuka makubaliano ya mkataba wa utekelezaji wa miradi ya maji na kusababisha milioni 171.8 kutumika kwa matumizi ambayo hayakukusudiwa.

Halmashauri hizo 3 katika mwaka wa fedha unaoishia Juni 2017 zilikuwa zinatekeleza miradi ya maji chini ya ufadhili wa Mfuko wa Maendeleo ya Sekta ya Maji (WSDP). Fedha za mfuko wa WSDP hutolewa na nchi wahisani au mashirika ya kimataifa kuhakikisha wananchi hasa maeneo ya vijijini wanapata maji safi na salama.

Wahisani hao wanaongozwa na dhamira kuu; maji ni uhai na binadamu popote alipo ni lazima aypate ili aweze kuishi. Lakini wapo baadhi ya watendaji katika halmshauri hizo kwa kujua au kutokujua wanahujumu miradi inayofadhiliwa na wahisani hao.

Tabia hiyo inatajwa kuwa kikwazo kwa wafadhili kuendelea kuwasaidia wananchi kupata maji kwasababu kukosekana kwa utashi wa kisiasa  kwa baadhi ya watendaji ambao kwa namna moja ama nyingine wanatumia tatizo la maji kama mtaji wa kujinufaisha kisiasa na kupata nafasi za uongozi serikalini.

Kulingana na Mkataba wa makubaliano (MoU) wa uanzishaji wa Mfuko wa WSDP aya ya 9.2.2 pamoja na marekebisho yake ya mwaka 2013 inaeleza kuwa, “Serikali imekubali kusamehe kodi zote zilizowekwa moja kwa moja au zisizo za moja kwa moja kwenye matumizi yote yanayostahili ya bidhaa, kazi na huduma za kifedha chini ya WSDP”.

Lakini halmashauri za  wilaya za Monduli mkoani Arusha; Karagwe na Biharamulo mkoani Kagera zilikiuka kifungo hicho na kutoza kodi yenye thamani sh. Milioni 171.8 kwenye miradi minne ya maji iliyofadhiliwa na mfuko wa WSDP ambayo haikupaswa kukatwa.

Kwa mujibu wa ripoti ya Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu za Serikali (CAG) ya mwaka wa fedha unaoishia Juni 2017 inaeleza kuwa katika halmashauri ya Wilaya ya Monduli ilibainika mikataba miwili ambayo ilitozwa kodi yenye thamani ya sh. Milioni 87.7 kutoka kwenye miradi ya maji ambayo haikustahili kulipa kodi katika wilaya hiyo.

“Nimebaini mikataba miwili, Na. LGA/004/2016/17/RWSSP/W/14 na Na. LGA/004/2016/17/RWSSP/W/10 katika Halmashauri ya Wilaya Monduli Mkoani Arusha, ambapo kiasi cha VAT (ongezeko la thamani) Sh. 87,765,679 kililipwa kwa ajili ya miradi ya maji iliyosamehewa kodi”, imeeleza ripoti hiyo ambayo ilitolewa na CAG, Prof. Mussa Assad wiki iliyopita.

Halmashauri za Karagwe na Biharamulo nazo zilifuata mkondo ule ule wa Monduli kwa kutoza kodi ya sh. Milioni 84.035 kwenye miradi miwili ya maji iliyokuwa ikitekelezwa na mfuko wa WSDP katika wilaya zao.

Taarifa ya CAG inafafanua kuwa “Nimebaini pia mikataba miwili katika Halmashauri za Wilaya Karagwe na Biharamulo yenye namba LGA/033/W/2016/17/W/NT/07 na LGA/032/2016-2017/HQ/WSDP/W/76 LOT 03 ambapo kodi ya ongezeko la thamani (VAT) yenye thamani ya Sh. 84,035,685 ilijumuishwa katika gharama ya miradi ya maji iliyosamehewa kodi.”

Kwa vyovyote vile katika miradi hiyo mitatu kuna harufu ya ufisadi, kama miradi hiyo haikutakiwa kulipa kodi fedha hizo zimeenda wapi?. Na kama serikali ilipokea hizo fedha ilitumia vigezo gani kwasababu masharti ya mkataba ambao serikali ilisaini hayaruhusu kodi ijumuishwe kwenye gharama za mradi wa maji.

Kiasi cha milioni 171.8 kukatwa kodi huenda kimewakosesha wananchi katika maeneo mengine kupata huduma ya maji. Kwa mafano fedha hiyo ingetumika vizuri ingeweza kujenga miradi mingine ya kusambaza maji katika halmashauri hizo na kuwapunguzia wananchi tatizo la upatikanaji wa maji.

 

Nini kifanyike…

CAG katika ripoti yake ameonyesha kusikitika na mwenendo  huo wa baadhi ya watendaji wa halmashauri kutozingatia maadili ya kazi zao. Amebainisha kuwa tabia hiyo ikiendelea inaweza kuwakatisha tamaa wafadhili kuendelea kutoa fedha za misaada.

“Kwa maoni yangu, malipo ya VAT kwa miradi iliyosamehewa kodi yanapunguza uwezo wa Halmashauri kugharamia miradi mingine. Aidha, kutofuata MoU kunakatisha tamaa nia za wafadhili kuendelea kutoa ruzuku katika miradi mingine.”, amesema CAG, Prof. Assad katika ripoti yake.

Kwa kutambua kuwa fedha zilizopotea ni nyingi, Makatibu Tawala wa halmashauri za wilaya hizo 3 wanapaswa kuchukuliwa hatua za kisheria kwa kitendo chao cha kukwamisha upatikanaji wa huduma muhimu ya maji kwa wananchi.

“Napendekeza kwamba, katika siku zijazo Uongozi wa Halmashauri ufuate mkataba wa makubaliano uliosainiwa. Aidha, Afisa Masuuli achukuliwe hatua kwa ulipaji wa VAT katika miradi iliyosamehewa kodi,” ameshauri CAG, Prof. Assad.

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Afya

Ubakaji, ulawiti watoto usifumbiwe macho Kinondoni

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Na Daniel Samson

Kulingana Sheria ya Mtoto ya mwaka 2009 sehemu ya pili (II) inatoa wajibu na majukumu ya mzazi katika kumlea mtoto ambapo inaeleza kuwa “Kila mzazi atakuwa na wajibu na majukumu yaliyowekwa ama na sheria au vinginevyo kwa mtoto wake ambayo yatajumuisha wajibu wa kumlinda mtoto dhidi ya utelekezwaji, ubaguzi, vurugu, unyanyasaji, madhara ya kimwili na kiakili na ukandamizaji”

Ni tofauti na matakwa ya sheria, wako baadhi ya wazazi ambao wanawafanyia watoto wao ukatili wa aina mbalimbali na kukiuka jukumu la msingi la kuwalinda na kuwatengenezea mstakabali mzuri wa maisha.

Lucy (4) (jina hilo sio halisi) ni miongoni mwa watoto wengi duniani ambao wamefanyiwa ukatili wa kijinsia na watu ambao wanapaswa kuwalinda na kuhakikisha wanakuwa na furaha wakati wote.

Lucy alibakwa na baba yake mzazi aliyetambulika kwa jina la Clement (40) (jina la pili tumelihifadhia). Tukio hilo lilitokea kata ya Bunju B wilaya ya Kinondoni ambapo alimsababishia maumivu makali sehemu zake za siri.

“Baba aliniingiza vidole huku chini, amekuwa akinifanyia muda mrefu. Aliniingiza chumbani akanilaza kitandani na kufungua zipu na kutoa dudu”,amesema Lucy na kuongeza kuwa baba yake alimuingilia nyumbani kwao Bunju B ambako wanaishi kwenye nyumba ya kupanga.

Akihojiwa na mwandishi wa makala haya Lucy amesema baba yake alimkataza kuwa asimuambie mtu yoyote lakini maumivu yalipozidi alimwambia mama yake aitwaye Beatrice (jina la pili tunalihifadhi kwa ajili ya usalama)

Beatrice anasema aligundua kuwa mtoto wake ameingiliwa wakati akimuogesha ambapo alikuwa akilalamika kwamba anapata maumivu sehemu za siri.

“Nilimuuliza tatizo nini lakini hakuniambia akabaki analia na kuonyesha sehemu zake za siri”, amesema Beatrice na kuongeza kuwa alimuita mama Vena ambaye wanaishi pamoja katika nyumba yao ambapo walimchunguza na kukuta ameharibiwa sehemu zake za siri.

“Nikampandisha juu ya kiti nikwambia wapi panauma? Ebu nionyeshe akapanua miguu. Nikamuuliza mbona uko hivi kuna tatizo gani huku mbona kuna damu, kulikuwa na michubuko, maana kulikuwa kwekundu kote…”, Amesema Mama Vena.

“Nikamuuliza  mbona uko hivi umefanyaje? Akaniambia baba amefanya hivi, baba alifungua zipu akatoa dudu akaingia huku”, amebainisha Mama Vena.

Anasema usiku huo huo, aliambatana na Beatrice hadi kwa kaka yake (Clement) ambaye anaishi mtaa wa Idara ya Maji kata ya Bunju B ili wasaidiwe kumkamata mtuhumiwa. Walifanya kikao ambapo walianza kumtafuta Clement ambaye tayari alikuwa ameondoka nyumbani baada ya kutekeleza unyama huo.

Familia hiyo haikutaka kulifikisha suala hilo kwenye vyombo vya dola na ili kumnusuru mtuhumiwa. Inaelezwa kuwa msimamo huo wa familia ulipata nguvu kwasababu Beatrice, mke wa Clement ilikataa kumfikisha mme wake polisi kwa kuhofia kukosa matunzo.

Mama Vena anasema siku tatu baada ya tukio hilo alitoa taarifa kwenye ofisi ya serikali ya mtaa wa Idara ya Maji na kutaka suala hilo lifikishwe polisi.

 Lucy aliyefanyiwa udhalilishaji wa kingono na baba yake mzazi

 

 Kesi yafikishwa Polisi

Kutokana na shinikizo la majirani, Beatrice, aliripoti tukio hilo kwenye kituo cha Polisi cha Mabwepande ambako huko jalada la kesi ya ubakaji lilifunguliwa Novemba pili 2017.

Beatrice alipewa Fomu ya Polisi (PF3) ambapo alimpeleka mtoto huyo hadi hospitali ya Mwananyamala iliyopo Wilaya ya Kinondoni kwa ajili ya vipimo.  Alionana na daktari na Lucy alifanyiwa vipimo viwili, cha Maambukizi ya virusi vya UKIMWI na kile cha kuingiliwa kimwili.

Majibu ya daktari  yalionyesha dhahiri kuwa mtoto huyo amenajisiwa na sehemu zake za siri zimeharibiwa na majibu ya kipimo cha maambukizi ya UKIMWI yamefanywa kuwa siri ili kutoharibu upelelezi wa kesi hiyo ambayo iko polisi.

Siku hiyo hiyo aliwasilisha majibu hayo kwa Mkuu wa Kituo Cha Polisi Cha Mabwepande, ambapo majibu yalipokelewa kwa ajili ya ushahidi. Upelelezi wa tukio hilo unaendelea ili kumkamata mtuhumiwa Clement ambaye alitoroka kusikojulikana baada ya kupata taarifa kuwa anatafutwa na polisi.

 

 Ukubwa wa Tatizo la ubakaji

Katika kuangazia ukubwa wa tatizo la ubakaji katika Manispaa ya kinondoni, Chama Cha Wanahabari Wanawake  (TAMWA), kimeshirikiana na mwanadishi wa makala haya ili kuibua na hatimaye kutoa suluhu juu ya njia sahihi ya kukomesha vitendo hivi.

Kwa mujibu wa takwimu za Jeshi la Polisi Tanzania (2016) zinaonyesha kuwa katika kipindi cha miezi saba ya kwanza ya mwaka 2016 yaani kuanzia Januari hadi Julai, Kinondoni ambayo Kipolisi ni Mkoa ilikuwa inaongoza kwa kuwa na kesi 187 za ubakaji katika kipindi hicho huku ikifuatiwa na Mbeya (177), Morogoro (160),  Pwani (159), Temeke (139) na Ilala (109).

Pia Takwimu za Jeshi hilo zinaonyesha kuwa matukio ya ubakaji nchini Tanzania yameongezeka kutoka 6,985 mwaka 2016 na kufikia matukio 7,460 mwaka 2017 na ongezeko hilo ni asilimia 6.8.  Makosa ya kunajisi yalikuwa 16 kwa mwaka 2016 na yaliongezeka hadi kufikia 25 mwaka uliofuata

Kinondoni inatajwa kuwa na matukio mengi ya ubakaji kwa sababu kuna mwamko wa watu kupinga vitendo vya ukatili wa kijinsia ikiwemo kuwaripoti  watuhumiwa wa vitendo hivyo ili wachukuliwe hatua za kisheria.

Kwa upande wake, Mkuu wa Wilaya ya Kinondoni, Ali Hapi ameitaka jamii kushirikiana na vyombo vya dola kwa kutoa taarifa sahihi za matukio ya ubakaji, “ Jeshi la Polisi limejipanga ili kila aliyepatikana na hatia ya ubakaji achukuliwe hatua”.

 

Ustawi wa Jamii

Mshauri na Mtaalamu wa Saikolojia kutoka Taasisi ya Ustawi wa Jamii Tanzania, Zainabu Rashidi amesema ubakaji una athari nyingi kwa watoto ambapo zinaweza kuendelea hadi ukubwani.

Amesema mtoto aliyebakwa hujiona duni na mpweke na hufikia hatua ya kujitenga na kuogopa kucheza na wenzake kwa sababu jamii humnyooshea kidole ambapo hujiona mwenye hatia.

“Athari kubwa ni kwamba mtoto anakuwa mnyonge, mpweke na anakosa hamu ya kushiriki na wenzake katika mambo mengine kwa sababu vitendo vya ubakaji katika jamii vinatafsiriwa kama aibu na unyonge. Na haijalishi mtoto amebakwa na nani? Jamii huanza kumnyoshea kidole kwamba Yule mtoto alibakwa”,  amesema Mtaalamu huyo na kuongeza kuwa,

“Anapokuwa mtu mzima anaendeleza tabia ambazo ni mbaya, anaweza kufanya vitendo vya kikatili, kulipiza kisasi, kumchoma mtoto mikono na mwingine anaweza kufikia hatua ya kuchanganyikiwa”.

Ameitaka jamii kujenga utamaduni wa kutoa taarifa na kuwasaidia waathirika wa ubakaji kwa kuwapeleka Ustawi wa Jamii ili wapate tiba ya kisaikolojia na kurejea katika hali ya kawaida.

                                            Beatrice, mama wa Lucy  aliyebakwa na baba yake mzazi

 

Msimamo wa Serikali dhidi ya Ukatili

Serikali kupitia Naibu Waziri wa Afya, Maendeleo ya Jamii, Jinsia, Wazee na Watoto, Dkt Faustine Ndungulile ameitaka jamii kutoyafumbia macho matukio ya ubakaji aidha inapaswa kutoa taarifa ili watuhumiwa wachukuliwe hatua za kisheria.

“Kupaza sauti katika kupinga ukatili wa kijinsia na kuondokana na utamaduni wa kukaa kimya dhidi ya vitendo vya kikatili na madhara yake yanamgusa kila mmoja katika ngazi tofauti”, amesema Dkt. Ndungulile.

Hata hivyo, Serikali imezifanyia maboresho Sera na Sheria ikiwemo  Sheria ya Elimu sura 353 ambayo inatoa adhabu ya kifungo kisichopungua miaka 30 kwa mtu yeyote atakayembaka na kumpa mimba mwanafunzi wa shule ya Msingi au Sekondari.

Pia Serikali imeanza utekelezaji wa Mpango Kazi wa Taifa wa kutokomeza Ukatili dhidi ya wanawake na watoto unaojumuisha sekta zote zinazohusu wanawake na watoto kwa lengo kuzuia aina zote za ukatili.

 

 Nini Kifanyike?

Ili kupunguza au kuyamaliza matukio haya, jamii inapaswa kuacha tabia ya kuwalinda wabakaji lakini wanatakiwa kuwafikisha kwenye vyombo vya dola ili wachukuliwe hatua za kisheria.

Pia kuboresha sheria na sera ikiwemo Sheria ya Ndoa ya mwaka 1971 ambayo inatoa mwanya kwa watoto kuolewa katika umri mdogo. Mabadiliko hayo yaambatane na mikakati ya kitaifa ya kuwalinda watoto dhidi ya vitendo vyote vya ukatili ukiwemo ubakaji na ulawiti.

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Afya

Waendesha bodaboda wanachangia asilimia 13 ya mimba za utotoni nchini

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  • Kuna uhusiano gani kati ya bodaboda na ongezeko la mimba za utotoni kwa wasichana wanaosafiri umbali mrefu kwenda shule?

Gazeti la The Guardian la Tanzania, linawaweka waendesha bodaboda kama kiini cha ongezeko la mimba za utotoni nchini Tanzania. Kwa mujibu wa tafiti zilizofanywa hivi karibuni, waendesha bodaboda wanachangia asilimia 13 ya mimba za utotoni nchini.

Matumizi ya bodaboda, ama pikipiki kwaajili ya biashara, yameongezeka sana nchini Tanzania hasa pale ambapo ni ngumu kupata usafiri mwingine. Umaarufu wake unasababishwa na upatikanaji mgumu wa usafiri pamoja na bei nafuu za pikipiki; na huwa zinaendeshwa na vijana wadogo waliotoka kumaliza tu elimu ya sekondari.

Kwa mujibu wa utafiti huo, wasichana wadogo, hasa wale wa vijijini, wako katika mazingira hatarishi zaidi kushawishika kingono kwasababu inawabidi kusafiri umbali mrefu kwenda shule. Gazeti la Financial Times linasema, baadhi ya wasichana huishi umbali wa hadi kilometa 15 kutoka shuleni, hivyo huwalazimu kupanda bodaboda badala za kutembea umbali huo.

Kwakuwa hawana fedha za kutosha kuwalipa waendesha bodaboda hao, huishia kulala nao kama njia ya malipo. Wanapopata ujauzito kwa jinsi hii, huishia kufukuzwa shuleni.

 

Swali hapa ni je, mimba ngapi za utotoni ambazo zinasababishwa na waendesha bodaboda nchini Tanzania?

PesaCheck imefanya uchunguzi na kubaini ya kwamba, madai ya kuwa waendesha bodaboda wanachangia ongezeko la mimba za utotoni Tanzania ni kweli kwa kiasi kikubwa kwa sababu zifuatazo:

Utafiti wa Taifa kuhusu Vichocheo na Madhara ya Ndoa za Utotoni nchini Tanzania, unafafanua kwamba wasichana kutoka kaya masikini ni kundi hatarishi kwasababu ya hali yao ya kiuchumi. Kukosa mahitaji yao ya msingi, kama kuweza kulipia usafiri, kunawafanya iwe rahisi kunyanyaswa kingono.

Ni ngumu kujua idadi kamili ya mimba zilizosababishwa na waendesha bodaboda. Lakini, kilicho bayana ni kwamba wasichana waishio vijijini nchini Tanzania ni kundi hatarishi la kunyanyaswa kingono na watu wanaohusika na usafiri sehemu mbalimbali nchini.

Watoto wengi hukumbana na changamoto mbalimbali wanapokuwa njiani kwenda na kutoka shule. Baadhi ya makondakta hukataa kuwachukua kwasababu wanalipa nauli ndogo. Safari ya kwenda na kutoka shule huwaweka watoto katika mazingira hatarishi. Ripoti ya “Ukatili Dhidi ya Watoto Tanzania” inaonyesha kwamba kati ya wasichana wanne waliotoa taarifa ya kufanyiwa ukatili wa kijinsia, mmoja kati yao ilimtokea akiwa anaenda shule, aidha kwa usafiri wa umma au akiwa anatembea.

Kwa mujibu wa Ripoti ya Ukatili Dhidi ya Watoto Tanzania (2011), msichana 1 kati ya 25 mwenye umri wa miaka 13 hadi 17 amewahi kupewa pesa au zawadi ili afanye ngono. Ripoti hii inaonyesha kwamba asilimia 23 ya wasichana wananyanyaswa kijinsia wakiwa wanaenda au kutoka shule.

Hivyo, madai ya kwamba waendesha bodaboda wanachangia ongezeko la mimba za utotoni nchini Tanzania ni kweli kwa kiasi kikubwa. Kuna ushahidi unaoonyesha kuwa wasichana wanaotoka kwenye kaya masikini, hasa walioko vijijini, wanapata shinikizo kubwa kulipia usafiri wao kingono. Kwa kuwanyanyasa wasichana hao, waendesha bodaboda huwaongezea ugumu ambao tayari wanao.

Matokeo yake, maamuzi ya kuwafukuza shule wasichana waliopata ujauzito huleta matokeo hasi. Kunawafanya wakose nafasi ya kupata elimu ambayo wangeihitaji kujikwamua na umasikini. Hivyo, huwaweka katika hali hatarishi zaidi.

 

Makala hii imeandikwa na PesaCheck Fellow Belinda Japhet, Mwandishi na Mshauri Mtaalamu wa maswala ya mawasiliano.

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Muhimu Kusoma

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